Reference List Last updated: 06-29-2020

The reference list is found at the end of the paper and it provides the information necessary to identify and retrieve the work cited in the text. Accurately prepared references help establish the credibility of a writer as a careful researcher and writer.

3.1 Formatting of Reference List

  • Begin the reference list on a new page after the text
  • Place the section label “References”in bold at the top of the page, centered.
  • Double space the entire reference list
  • Order the reference list entries alphabetically by author.
  • Apply a hanging indent on 0.5in to each reference list entry.( hanging indent can be found in the MS word as shown in the screenshot)

3.2 Works Included in a Reference List

each work cited in the text must appear in the reference list, and each work in the reference list must be cited in the text.

3.3 Four Elements of a Reference

A reference generally has four elements: Author, date, title & Source. Each element answers a question.

Author: Who is responsible for the work?

Date : When was this work published?

Title: What is this work called?

Source: Where can I retrieve the work?

Correspondence Between Source and Reference List Entry

The following figure shows the first page of a journal article. The locations of the reference elements are highlighted with different colors and callouts, and the same colors are used in the reference list entry to show how the entry corresponds to the source.

Additionally, the in-text citation for a work corresponds to the reference list entry. For example, the in-text citation for the work in the example is Botto and Rochat (2018) or (Botto & Rochat, 2018).

View the reference examples to see the basic principles of references in action.

3.31 Author

The author refers broadly to the person(s) or group(s) responsible for a work. An author may be

  • an individual,
  • multiple people,
  • a group (institution, government agency, organization, etc.), or
  • a combination of people and groups.

This element includes not only authors of articles, books, reports, and other works but also others who played primary roles in the creation of a work, such as editors of books, directors of films, principal investigators of grants, podcast hosts, and so on.

When you cannot determine who the author is, treat the work as having no author.

3.311 Format of Individual Author Names

Invert all individual authors’ names, providing the surname first, followed by a comma and the author’s initials.


Use a comma to separate an author’s initials from additional author names, even when there are only two authors. Use an ampersand (&) before the final author’s name.

Edmonds, A., & Edmonds, T. A.

3.312 Format of Group Author Names

Group authors are often government agencies, nonprofit organizations, and task forces. Follow these guidelines to format the names of group authors in the reference list.

Look at the title page or cover of the work to determine whether it has a group author or individual authors.

Spell out the full name of a group author in the reference list entry, followed by a period.

National Institute of Health
  • On a page from an organizational or government agency website, the organization or government agency itself is considered the author, unless otherwise specified. The author of a webpage or website may also be located on an “about us” or acknowledgments page.
  • An abbreviation for the group author can be used in the text (e.g., NIMH for National Institute of Mental Health); however, do not include an abbreviation for a group author in a reference list entry.

3.313 No Author

A work is said to have no author when there is no author listed or it is unknown or can’t be determined.

In the case where no author is listed, move the title of the work in place of author (followed by a period) before the date of publication.

Spanish in Art. (2019)

3.4 Date

The date refers to the date of publication of the work. The date will take one of the following forms:

  • year only;
  • year, month, and day (i.e., an exact date);
  • year and month;
  • year and season; or
  • range of dates (e.g., range of years, range of exact dates).

When you cannot determine the date of publication, treat the work as having no date.

3.41 Format of the Date

Enclose the date of publication in parentheses, followed by a period


For works from a reference category that includes the month, day, and/or season along with the year, put the year first, followed by a comma, and then the month and date or season.

(2019, August 2) (2019, Winter)

When the date of original publication is approximate, use the abbreviation

“ca.” (which stands for “circa”). (ca. 1919)

3.42 No Dates

If you can’t locate the date of the publication, write n.d.(stands for no date) in parentheses.

Edmond, T.(n.d.)

This is the same way it is written in in-text citation.

3.5 Title

The title refers to the title of the work being cited. Titles fall into two broad categories:

  • works that stand alone (e.g., whole books, reports, gray literature, dissertations and theses, informally published works, data sets, videos, films, TV series, albums, podcasts, social media, and works on websites) and
  • works that are part of a greater whole (e.g., periodical articles, edited book chapters, TV and podcast episodes, and songs).

3.51 Format of the Title

  • For works that are part of a greater whole (e.g., journal articles, edited book chapters), capitalize the title using sentence case. Do not italicize the title or use quotation marks around it. Happy fish in little ponds: Testing a reference group model of achievement and emotion
  • For works that stand alone (e.g., books, reports, webpages), italicize the title, and capitalize it using sentence case. Becoming brilliant: What science tells us about raising successful children.
  • For book and report references, enclose edition information, report numbers, and volume numbers in parentheses after the title. Do not add a period between the title and the parenthetical information. Do not italicize the parenthetical information. If both edition and volume information are included, separate these elements with a comma, placing the edition number first. Nursing: A concept-based approach to learning (2nd ed., Vol. 1).
  • Finish the title element with a period. However, if the title ends with a question mark or exclamation point, that punctuation mark replaces the period. Late-onset unexplained epilepsy: What are we missing?

3.52 No Title

For works without a title, include description of the work

(e.g. a map)

For untitled social media posts or periodical articles, include first 20 words of the comment or post

3.6 Source

The source indicates where readers can retrieve the cited work. As with titles, sources fall into two broad categories: works that are part of a greater whole and works that stand alone.

  • The source for a work that is part of a greater whole (e.g., journal article, edited book chapter) is that greater whole (i.e., the journal or edited book), plus any applicable DOI or URL.
  • The source for a work that stands alone (e.g., whole book, report, dissertation, thesis, film, TV series, podcast, data set, informally published work, social media, webpage) is the publisher of the work, database or archive, social media site, or website, plus any applicable DOI or URL.
  • A location is not required in the source element for most works (e.g., do not include the publisher location for book references).
  • Works associated with a specific location (e.g., artwork in a museum, conference presentations) include location information in the source and, depending on the work, may also include a DOI or URL.

If a work is not recoverable, treat it as having no source.

3.61 Format of the Source

The format of the source varies depending on the reference type.

Reference type Components of the source Example source element
Journal article Periodical title, volume, issue, page range, and DOI or URL Couple and Family Psychology: Research and Practice, 8(3), 137–151.
Journal article with article number Periodical title, volume, issue, article number, and DOI or URL PLoS ONE, 14(9), Article e0222224.
Authored book or whole edited book Publisher name and DOI or URL Springer.
Edited book chapter Information about the whole book (including editor name, book title, edition and/or volume number, page range, and publisher name) and DOI or URL In G. R. Samanez-Larkin (Ed.), The aging brain: Functional adaptation across adulthood (pp. 9–43). American Psychological Association.
Webpage on a website (when authors are different from the site name) Website name and URL Mayo Clinic.
Webpage on a website (when authors are the same as the site name) URL

3.7 Missing Reference Information

Sometimes the information needed to create a reference list entry is missing or unknown. When this is the case, there are various strategies to adapt the reference.

Missing element Solution Template
Reference list entry In-text citation
Nothing—all elements are present Provide the author, date, title, and source of the work. Author. (Date). Title. Source. (Author, year) Author (year)
Author Provide the title, date, and source. Title. (Date). Source. (Title, year) Title (year)
Date Provide the author, write “n.d.” for “no date,” and then provide the title and source. Author. (n.d.). Title. Source. (Author, n.d.) Author (n.d.)
Title Provide the author and date, describe the work in square brackets, and then provide the source. Author. (Date). [Description of work]. Source. (Author, year)
Author (year)
Author and date Provide the title, write “n.d.” for “no date,” and then provide the source. Title. (n.d.). Source. (Title, n.d.)
Title (n.d.)
Author and title Describe the work in square brackets, and then provide the date and source [Description of work]. (Date). Source. ([Description of work], year)
[Description of work] (year)
Date and title Provide the author, write “n.d.” for “no date,” describe the work in square brackets, and then provide the source. Author. (n.d.). [Description of work]. Source. (Author, n.d.)
Author (n.d.)
Author, date, and title Describe the work in square brackets, write “n.d.” for “no date,” and then provide the source. [Description of work]. (n.d.). Source. ([Description of work], n.d.)
[Description of work] (n.d.)
Source Cite as a personal communication or find another work to cite (see the Publication Manual for more information). No reference list entry (C. C. Communicator, personal communication, month day, year)
C. C. Communicator (personal communication, month day, year)

Reference Examples

Examples of the most common works that writers cite are provided

To find the reference example you need, first select a category (e.g., periodicals) and then choose the appropriate type of work (e.g., journal article) and follow the relevant example.

3.81 Textual Works

Textual works are covered in Sections 10.1–10.8 of the Publication Manual. The most common categories and examples are presented here. For the reviews of other works category, see Section 10.7.










3.84 Online Media



Journal Article References

This contains reference examples for journal articles, including the following:

  • If a journal article has a DOI, include the DOI in the reference.
  • Always include the issue number for a journal article.
  • If the journal article does not have a DOI but does have a URL that will resolve for readers (e.g., it is from an online journal that is not part of a database), include the URL of the article at the end of the reference.
  • Journal article

    Gray, J. H., Henry, K., White, G., Lopez, C., & Perez, J. (2018). Emotions in Literature: A comparison of literature that represent ethnic and racial groups in the United States. Psychology of Popular Media Culture, 9(4), 107–127.
    • Parenthetical citation: (Gray et al., 2018)
    • Narrative citation: Gray et al. (2018
  • Journal article with an article number

    Jerrentrup, A., Mueller, T., Glowalla, U., Herder, M., Henrichs, N., Neubauer, A., & Schaefer, J. R. (2018). Teaching medicine with the help of “Dr. House.” PLoS ONE, 13(3), Article e0193972.
    • Parenthetical citation: (Jerrentrup et al., 2018)
    • Narrative citation: Jerrentrup et al. (2018)
  • Missing volume number

    Stegmeir, M. (2016). Climate change: New discipline practices promote college access. The Journal of College Admission, (231), 44–47.
  • Missing issue number

    Sanchiz, M., Chevalier, A., & Amadieu, F. (2017). How do older and young adults start searching for information? Impact of age, domain knowledge and problem complexity on the different steps of information searching. Computers in Human Behavior, 72, 67–78.
  • Missing page or article number

    Butler, J. (2017). Where access meets multimodality: The case of ASL music videos. Kairos: A Journal of Rhetoric, Technology, and Pedagogy, 21(1).
    • Parenthetical citation: (Butler, 2017; Sanchiz et al., 2017; Stegmeir, 2016)
    • Narrative citation: Butler (2017), Sanchiz et al. (2017), and Stegmeir (2016)
  • Monograph as part of a journal issue

    Ganster, D. C., Schaubroeck, J., Sime, W. E., & Mayes, B. T. (1991). The nomological validity of the Type A personality among employed adults [Monograph]. Journal of Applied Psychology, 76(1), 143–168.
    • Parenthetical citation: (Ganster et al., 1991)
    • Narrative citation: Ganster et al. (1991)
  • Online-only supplemental material to a journal article

    Freeberg, T. M. (2019). From simple rules of individual proximity, complex and coordinated collective movement [Supplemental material]. Journal of Comparative Psychology, 133(2), 141–142.
    • Parenthetical citation: (Freeberg, 2019)
    • Narrative citation: Freeberg (2019)

Magazine Article References

  • If a magazine article has a DOI, include the DOI in the reference
  • If the magazine article does not have a DOI and is from an academic research database, end the reference after the page range . Do not include database information in the reference. The reference in this case is the same as for a print magazine article.
  • If the magazine article does not have a DOI but does have a URL that will resolve for readers (e.g., it is from an online magazine that is not part of a database), include the URL of the article at the end of the reference (as in the Schulman example).
  • If the magazine article does not have volume, issue, and/or page numbers (e.g., because it is from an online magazine), omit the missing elements from the reference (as in the Schulman example). Lyons, D. (2009, June 15). Don't ‘iTune’ us: It’s geeks versus writers. Guess who’s winning. Newsweek, 153(24), 27. Schaefer, N. K., & Shapiro, B. (2019, September 6). New middle chapter in the story of human evolution. Science, 365(6457), 981–982. Schulman, M. (2019, September 9). Superfans: A love story. The New Yorker.
    • Parenthetical citations: (Lyons, 2009; Schaefer & Shapiro, 2019; Schulman, 2019)
    • Narrative citations: Lyons (2009), Schaefer and Shapiro (2019), and Schulman (2019)

Newspaper Article References

  • In the source element of the reference, provide at minimum the title of the newspaper in italic title case.
  • If the newspaper article is from an online newspaper that has a URL that will resolve for readers (as in the Carey example), include the URL of the article at the end of the reference. If volume, issue, and/or page numbers for the article are missing, omit these elements from the reference.
  • If you used a print version of the newspaper article (as in the Harlan example), provide the page or pages of the article after the newspaper title. Do not include the abbreviations “p.” or “pp.” before the page(s).
  • If the newspaper article is from an academic research database, provide the title of the newspaper and any volume, issue, and/or page numbers that are available for the article. Do not include database information in the reference. If the article does not have volume, issue, or page numbers available, the reference in this case ends with the title of the newspaper (as in the Stobbe example).
  • If the article is from a news website (e.g., CNN, HuffPost)—one that does not have an associated daily or weekly newspaper—use the format for a webpage on a news website instead. Carey, B. (2019, March 22). Can we get better at forgetting? The New York Times. Harlan, C. (2013, April 2). North Korea vows to restart shuttered nuclear reactor that can make bomb-grade plutonium. The Washington Post, A1, A4. Stobbe, M. (2020, January 8). Cancer death rate in U.S. sees largest one-year drop ever. Chicago Tribune.
    • Parenthetical citations: (Carey, 2019; Harlan, 2013; Stobbe, 2020)
    • Narrative citations: Carey (2019), Harlan (2013), and Stobbe (2020)

Blog Post

  • Blog posts follow the same format as journal articles.
  • Italicize the name of the blog, the same as you would a journal title. Ouellette, J. (2019, November 15). Physicists capture first footage of quantum knots unraveling in superfluid. Ars Technica.
    • Parenthetical citation: (Ouellette, 2019)
    • Narrative citation: Ouellette (2019)

UpToDate Article References

  • Articles in the UpToDate database are available only in that database and have information that changes over time.
  • In the reference list, format UpToDate articles like periodical articles. Italicize the database name in the reference like a periodical title, but do not italicize the database name if it appears in the text.
  • Use the year of last update in the date element.
  • Include a retrieval date because the content is designed to change over time and versions of the page are not archived. Bordeaux, B., & Lieberman, H. R. (2020). Benefits and risks of caffeine and caffeinated beverages. UpToDate. Retrieved February 26, 2020, from
    • Parenthetical citation: (Bordeaux & Lieberman, 2020)
    • Narrative citation: Bordeaux and Lieberman (2020)


  • Book References
  • Provide the author, year of publication, title, and publisher of the book.
  • Include any edition information in parentheses after the title, without italics.
  • If the book includes a DOI, include the DOI in the reference after the publisher name.
  • Do not include the publisher location.
  • If the book does not have a DOI and is an ebook from an academic research database, end the book reference after the publisher name. Do not include database information in the reference. The reference in this case is the same as for a print book.

This page contains reference examples for books, including the following:

  • Whole authored book Jackson, L. M. (2019). The psychology of prejudice: From attitudes to social action (2nd ed.). American Psychological Association. Sapolsky, R. M. (2017). Behave: The biology of humans at our best and worst. Penguin Books.
    • Parenthetical citations: (Jackson, 2019; Sapolsky, 2017)
    • Narrative citations: Jackson (2019) and Sapolsky (2017)
  • Whole edited book Kesharwani, P. (Ed.). (2020). Nanotechnology based approaches for tuberculosis treatment. Academic Press. Torino, G. C., Rivera, D. P., Capodilupo, C. M., Nadal, K. L., & Sue, D. W. (Eds.). (2019). Microaggression theory: Influence and implications. John Wiley & Sons.
    • Parenthetical citations: (Kesharwani, 2020; Torino et al., 2019)
    • Narrative citations: Kesharwani (2020) and Torino et al. (2019)
  • Book published with new foreword by another author Kübler-Ross, E. (with Byock, I.). (2014). On death & dying: What the dying have to teach doctors, nurses, clergy & their own families (50th anniversary ed.). Scribner. (Original work published 1969)
    • Parenthetical citation: (Kübler-Ross, 1969/2014)
    • Narrative citation: Kübler-Ross (1969/2014)
  • Several volumes of a multivolume work Harris, K. R., Graham, S., & Urdan T. (Eds.). (2012). APA educational psychology handbook (Vols. 1–3). American Psychological Association.
    • Parenthetical citation: (Harris et al., 2012)
    • Narrative citation: Harris et al. (2012)


  • Edited Book Chapter References Aron, L., Botella, M., & Lubart, T. (2019). Culinary arts: Talent and their development. In R. F. Subotnik, P. Olszewski-Kubilius, & F. C. Worrell (Eds.), The psychology of high performance: Developing human potential into domain-specific talent (pp. 345–359). American Psychological Association. Dillard, J. P. (2020). Currents in the study of persuasion. In M. B. Oliver, A. A. Raney, & J. Bryant (Eds.), Media effects: Advances in theory and research (4th ed., pp. 115–129). Routledge.
    • Parenthetical citations: (Aron et al., 2019; Dillard, 2020)
    • Narrative citations: Aron et al. (2019) and Dillard (2020)


  • Report by a Government Agency References

    National Cancer Institute. (2019). Taking time: Support for people with cancer (NIH Publication No. 18-2059). U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, National Institutes of Health.
    • Parenthetical citation: (National Cancer Institute, 2019)
    • Narrative citation: National Cancer Institute (2019)
  • Report with Individual Authors References

    Baral, P., Larsen, M., & Archer, M. (2019). Does money grow on trees? Restoration financing in Southeast Asia. Atlantic Council. Stuster, J., Adolf, J., Byrne, V., & Greene, M. (2018). Human exploration of Mars: Preliminary lists of crew tasks (Report No. NASA/CR-2018-220043). National Aeronautics and Space Administration.
    • Parenthetical citations: (Baral et al., 2019; Stuster et al., 2018)
    • Narrative citations: Baral et al. (2019) and Stuster et al. (2018)
  • Brochure References

    • Brochures, pamphlets, or flyers follow the same format as report references.
    • This brochure has an organizational author rather than individual authors.
    • Include the description “[Brochure]” in square brackets after the title of the brochure.
    • Cedars-Sinai. (2015). Human papillomavirus (HPV) and oropharyngeal cancer [Brochure].
      • Parenthetical citation: (Cedars-Sinai, 2015)
      • Narrative citation: Cedars-Sinai (2015)
  • ISO Standard References

    • For most standards, the author will be the organization setting the standard.
    • For most standards, the date will be the year the standard was made effective. For OSHA standards, the year is usually 1970.
    • Provide the standard number in parentheses after the title without italics.
    • International Organization for Standardization. (2018). Occupational health and safety management systems—Requirements with guidance for use (ISO Standard No. 45001:2018). Occupational Safety and Health Administration. (1970). Occupational safety and health standards: Occupational health and environmental control: Occupational noise exposure (OSHA Standard No. 1910.95). United States Department of Labor.
      • Parenthetical citations: (International Organization for Standardization, 2018; Occupational Safety and Health Administration, 1970)
      • Narrative citations: International Organization for Standardization (2018) and Occupational Safety and Health Administration (1970)
  • Press Release References

    • Provide the name of the group that released the press release as the author.
    • Include the description “[Press release]” in square brackets after the title of the press release.
    • When the author and the publisher of the press release are the same, omit the publisher to avoid repetition, as shown in the example.
    • U.S. Food and Drug Administration. (2019, November 15). FDA approves first contact lens indicated to slow the progression of nearsightedness in children [Press release].
      • Parenthetical citation: (U.S. Food and Drug Administration, 2019)
      • Narrative citation: U.S. Food and Drug Administration (2019)
  • White Paper References

    • A white paper is a persuasive document that is written by a person or group to convince readers of their position and philosophy on a topic.
    • Include the description “[White paper]” in square brackets after the title of the white paper.

This contains reference examples for white papers, including the following:

  • White paper with a group author

    Department for Business Innovation & Skills. (2016). Success as a knowledge economy: Teaching excellent, social mobility and student choice [White paper]. Crown.
    • Parenthetical citation: (Department for Business Innovation & Skills, 2016)
    • Narrative citation: Department for Business Innovation & Skills (2016)
  • White paper with individual authors

    Furst, M., & DeMillo, R. A. (2006). Creating symphonic-thinking computer science graduates for an increasingly competitive global environment [White paper]. Georgia Tech College of Computing.
    • Parenthetical citation: (Furst & DeMillo, 2006)
    • Narrative citation: Furst and DeMillo (2006)


  • Conference Presentation References

    • Conference proceedings published in a journal

      Duckworth, A. L., Quirk, A., Gallop, R., Hoyle, R. H., Kelly, D. R., & Matthews, M. D. (2019). Cognitive and noncognitive predictors of success. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA, 116(47), 23499–23504.
      • Parenthetical citation: (Duckworth et al., 2019)
      • Narrative citation: Duckworth et al. (2019)
    • Conference proceedings published as a whole book

      Kushilevitz, E., & Malkin, T. (Eds.). (2016). Lecture notes in computer science: Vol. 9562. Theory of cryptography. Springer.
      • Parenthetical citation: (Kushilevitz & Malkin, 2016)
      • Narrative citation: Kushilevitz and Malkin (2016)
    • Conference proceedings published as a book chapter

      Evans, A. C., Jr., Garbarino, J., Bocanegra, E., Kinscherff, R. T., & Márquez-Greene, N. (2019, August 8–11). Gun violence: An event on the power of community [Conference presentation]. APA 2019 Convention, Chicago, IL, United States.
      • Parenthetical citation: (Evans et al., 2019)
      • Narrative citation: Evans et al. (2019)
  • Conference Proceeding References

    Bedenel, A.-L., Jourdan, L., & Biernacki, C. (2019). Probability estimation by an adapted genetic algorithm in web insurance. In R. Battiti, M. Brunato, I. Kotsireas, & P. Pardalos (Eds.), Lecture notes in computer science: Vol. 11353. Learning and intelligent optimization (pp. 225–240). Springer.
    • Parenthetical citation: (Bedenel et al., 2019)
    • Narrative citation: Bedenel et al. (2019)


A dissertation or thesis is considered published when it is available from a database such as ProQuest Dissertations and Theses Global or PDQT Open, an institutional repository, or an archive.

  • Published Dissertation or Thesis References

    Kabir, J. M. (2016). Factors influencing customer satisfaction at a fast food hamburger chain: The relationship between customer satisfaction and customer loyalty (Publication No. 10169573) [Doctoral dissertation, Wilmington University]. ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Global Miranda, C. (2019). Exploring the lived experiences of foster youth who obtained graduate level degrees: Self-efficacy, resilience, and the impact on identity development (Publication No. 27542827) [Doctoral dissertation, Pepperdine University]. PQDT Open. Zambrano-Vazquez, L. (2016). The interaction of state and trait worry on response monitoring in those with worry and obsessive-compulsive symptoms [Doctoral dissertation, University of Arizona]. UA Campus Repository.
    • Parenthetical citation: (Kabir, 2016; Miranda, 2019; Zambrano-Vazquez, 2016)
    • Narrative citation: (2016), Miranda (2019), and Zambrano-Vazquez (2016)
  • Unpublished Dissertation or Thesis References

    Harris, L. (2014). Instructional leadership perceptions and practices of elementary school leaders [Unpublished doctoral dissertation]. University of Virginia.
    • Parenthetical citation: (Harris, 2014)
    • Narrative citation: Harris (2014)


  • ERIC Database References

    • The ERIC database includes materials of wide circulation (e.g., journal articles) as well as materials of limited circulation (e.g., manuscripts submitted by authors).
    • Use this format to cite works in ERIC that are of limited circulation.
    • For works of wide circulation, use the format for the work type (e.g., the journal article reference format).
    • ERIC assigns document numbers to the works in the database. Include this number in parentheses after the title of the work.
    Jacobs, G. M., Teh, J., & Spencer, L. (2019). A proposal for facilitating more cooperation in competitive sports (ED573929). ERIC.
    • Parenthetical citation: (Jacobs et al., 2019)
    • Narrative citation: Jacobs et al. (2019)


  • Data Set References

    • Provide citations for data sets when you have either conducted secondary analyses of publicly archived data or archived your own data being presented for the first time in the current work.
    • If you are citing existing data or statistics, cite the publication in which the data were published (e.g., a journal article, report, or webpage) rather than the data set itself.
    • The date in the reference is the year of publication for the version of the data used.
    O’Donohue, W. (2017). Content analysis of undergraduate psychology textbooks (ICPSR 21600; Version V1) [Data set]. ICPSR.
    • Parenthetical citation: (O’Donohue, 2017)
    • Narrative citation: O’Donohue (2017)
  • Toolbox References

    • A toolbox is a set of statistical tools that researchers can use to analyze data, for example, to analyze distributions or to perform statistical modeling.
    • To cite a toolbox, cite the work in which the toolbox was published (typically a journal article or conference presentation).
    • Mention the name of the toolbox in the narrative if desired
    Shi, Y., Ma, X., Ma, Z., Wang, J., Yao, N., Gu, Q., Wang, C., & Gao, Z. (2018). Using a Kinect sensor to acquire biological motion: Toolbox and evaluation. Behavior Research Methods, 50(2), 518–529.
    • Parenthetical citation: (Shi et al., 2018)
    • Narrative citation: Shi et al. (2018)


  • Artwork References

    • Artwork in a museum or on a museum website
    • Use this format to cite all types of museum artwork, including paintings, sculptures, photographs, prints, drawings, digital art, crafts, and installations.

      van Gogh, V. (1889). The starry night [Painting]. The Museum of Modern Art, New York, NY, United States.
      • Parenthetical citation: (van Gogh, 1889)
      • Narrative citation: van Gogh (1889)
  • Film and Television References

    • Film or movie

      Fleming, V. (Director). (1939). Gone with the wind [Film]. Selznick International Pictures; Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer.
      • Parenthetical citation: (Fleming, 1939)
      • Narrative citation: Fleming (1939)
    • Film or movie, in another language

      Alfredson, T. (Director). (2008). Låt den rätte komma in [Let the right one in] [Film]. Magnolia.
      • Parenthetical citation: (Alfredson, 2008)
      • Narrative citation: Alfredson (2008)
    • TV series

      Serling, R. (Executive Producer). (1959–1964). The twilight zone [TV series]. Cayuga Productions; CBS Productions.
      • Parenthetical citation: (Serling, 1959–1964)
      • Narrative citation: Serling (1959–1964)
    • Episode of a TV show

      Favreau, J. (Writer), & Filoni, D. (Director). (2019, November 12). Chapter 1 (Season 1, Episode 1) [TV series episode]. In J. Favreau, D. Filoni, K. Kennedy, & C. Wilson (Executive Producers), The Mandalorian. Lucasfilm; Golem Creations. Sherman-Palladino, A. (Writer & Director). (2018, December 5). All alone (Season 2, Episode 10) [TV series episode]. In A. Sherman-Palladino, D. Palladino, D. Gilbert, M. Shapiro, S. Carino, & S. Lawrence (Executive Producers), The marvelous Mrs. Maisel. Dorothy Parker Drank Here Productions; Picrow; Amazon Studios.
      • Parenthetical citation: (Favreau & Filoni, 2019; Sherman-Palladino, 2018)
      • Narrative citation: Favreau and Filoni (2019) and Sherman-Palladino (2018)
  • PowerPoint Slide or Lecture Note References

    • PowerPoint slides available online

      When the slides are available online to anyone, provide the site name on which they are hosted in the source element of the reference, followed by the URL of the slides.

      Jones, J. (2016, March 23). Guided reading: Making the most of it [PowerPoint slides]. SlideShare.
      • Parenthetical citation: (Jones, 2016)
      • Narrative citation: Jones (2016)
    • PowerPoint slides from a classroom website

      If the slides come from a classroom website, learning management system (e.g., Canvas, Blackboard, Moodle, Sakai), or company intranet and you are writing for an audience with access to that resource, provide the name of the site and its URL (use the login page URL for sites requiring login).

      Mack, R., & Spake, G. (2018). Citing open source images and formatting references for presentations [PowerPoint slides]. Canvas@FNU.
      • Parenthetical citation: (Mack & Spake, 2018)
      • Narrative citation: Mack and Spake (2018)
  • TED Talk References

    • TED Talk from the TED website

      Cuddy, A. (2012, June). Your body language may shape who you are [Video]. TED Conferences.
      • Parenthetical citation: (Cuddy, 2012)
      • Narrative citation: Cuddy (2012)
    • TED Talk from YouTube

      When the TED Talk is on YouTube, list the owner of the YouTube account (here, TED) as the author to aid in retrieval.

      TED. (2019, November 13). The danger of AI is weirder than you think | Janelle Shane [Video]. YouTube.
      • Parenthetical citation: (TED, 2019)
      • Narrative citation: TED (2019)
  • YouTube Video References

    • YouTube video

      Use the name of the account that uploaded the video as the author.

      If the account did not actually create the work, explain this in the text if it is important for readers to know. However, if that would mean citing a source that appears unauthoritative, you might also look for the author’s YouTube channel, official website, or other social media to see whether the same video is available elsewhere.

      Harvard University. (2019, August 28). Soft robotic gripper for jellyfish [Video]. YouTube.
      • Parenthetical citation: (Harvard University, 2019)
      • Narrative citation: Harvard University (2019)
    • YouTube channel

      YouTube channel pages begin on the “Home” tab by default. If you want to cite one of the other tabs (e.g., “Videos,” “Playlists”), use the name of that tab rather than “Home” in the title element of the reference (as in the Walker example).

      APA Publishing Training. (n.d.). Home [YouTube channel]. Retrieved February 20, 2020, from Walker, A. (n.d.). Playlists [YouTube channel]. YouTube. Retrieved October 8, 2019, from
      • Parenthetical citation: (APA Publishing Training, n.d.; Walker, n.d.)
      • Narrative citation: APA Publishing Training (n.d.) and Walker (n.d.)

3.84 Online Media


  • Facebook References

    • Facebook post

      Use the name associated with the account as the name in the reference.

      News From Science. (2019, June 21). Are you a fan of astronomy? Enjoy reading about what scientists have discovered in our solar system—and beyond? This [Image attached] [Status update]. Facebook.
      • Parenthetical citation: (News From Science, 2019)
      • Narrative citation: News From Science (2019)
    • Facebook page

      Use the page title in the reference (e.g., “Home,” “About,” “Reviews”).

      Include the notation “[Facebook page]” in square brackets.

      National Park Service. (n.d.). Home [Facebook page]. Facebook. Retrieved January 12, 2020, from
      • Parenthetical citation: (National Park Service, n.d.)
      • Narrative citation: National Park Service (n.d.)
  • Instagram References

    • Instagram photo

      Philadelphia Museum of Art [@philamuseum]. (2019, December 3). “It’s always wonderful to walk in and see my work in a collection where it’s loved, and where people are [Photograph]. Instagram.
      • Parenthetical citation: (Philadelphia Museum of Art, 2019)
      • Narrative citation: Philadelphia Museum of Art (2019)
    • Instagram video

      APA Public Interest Directorate [@apapubint]. (2019, June 14). Male depression is serious, but many men try to ignore it or refuse treatment. Different men have different symptoms, but [Video].

      • Parenthetical citation: (APA Public Interest Directorate, 2019)
      • Narrative citation: APA Public Interest Directorate (2019)
    • Instagram profile

      National Geographic [@natgeo]. (n.d.). IGTV [Instagram profile]. Instagram. Retrieved December 8, 2019, from Swift, T. [@taylorswift]. (n.d.). Posts [Instagram profile]. Instagram. Retrieved January 9, 2020, from United States Army [@usarmy]. (n.d.). Tagged [Instagram profile]. Instagram. Retrieved January 18, 2020, from
      • Parenthetical citation: (National Geographic, n.d.; Swift, n.d.; United States Army, n.d.)
      • Narrative citation: National Geographic (n.d.), Swift (n.d.), and United States Army (n.d.)
    • Instagram highlight

      The New York Public Library [@nypl]. (n.d.). The raven [Highlight]. Instagram. Retrieved January 6, 2020, from
      • Parenthetical citation: (The New York Public Library, n.d.)
      • Narrative citation: (The New York Public Library (n.d.)
  • LinkedIn References

    • LinkedIn post

      American Psychological Association. (2019, December 9). Last month, APA joined more than 40 national and international psychology organizations to explore ways to collaborate and use psychological [Thumbnail with link attached] [Post]. LinkedIn. Goodwin, J. (2019, September). The best part of attending the American Psychological Association's 2019 Convention in Chicago this year was having the opportunity to [Image attached] [Post]. LinkedIn.
      • Parenthetical citation: (American Psychological Association, 2019; Goodwin, 2019)
      • Narrative citation: American Psychological Association (2019) and Goodwin (2019)
    • LinkedIn profile

      John Tyler Community College. (n.d.). Home [LinkedIn page]. LinkedIn. Retrieved January 9, 2020, from
      • Parenthetical citation: (John Tyler Community College, n.d.)
      • Narrative citation: John Tyler Community College (n.d.)
  • Online Forum (e.g., Reddit) References

    • Online forum post

      Little, J. [j450n_l]. (2018, December 12). I'm the first person in the world with a neural-enabled prosthetic hand. Using an specialized prosthetic and a device implanted [Online forum post]. Reddit.
      • Parenthetical citation: (Little, 2018)
      • Narrative citation: Little (2018)
    • Online forum comment

      Gates, B. [thisisbillgates]. (2017, February 27). Philanthropy is small as a part of the overall economy so it can't do things like fund health care or [Comment on the online forum post I’m Bill Gates, co-chair of the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation. Ask me anything.]. Reddit. haffy-1223. (2018, September 12). What do you think while on the launchpad about to launch? [Comment on the online forum post I’m NASA astronaut Scott Tingle. Ask me anything about adjusting to being back on Earth after my first spaceflight!]. Reddit.
      • Parenthetical citation: (Gates, 2017; haffy-1223, 2018)
      • Narrative citation: Gates (2017) and haffy-1223 (2018)
  • Twitter References

  • Tweet

    APA Databases [@APA_Databases]. (2019, September 5). Help students avoid plagiarism and researchers navigate the publication process. More details available in the 7th edition @APA_Style table [Image attached] [Tweet]. Twitter. Gates, B. [@BillGates]. (2019, September 7). Today, it’s difficult for researchers to diagnose #Alzheimers patients early enough to intervene. A reliable, easy and accurate diagnostic would [Thumbnail with link attached] [Tweet]. Twitter. Simons, J. [@Jasper_Simons]. (2015, March 18). Do you like PsycINFO? Then learn about PsycTESTS from @APA here: [Tweet]. Twitter. Stella, T. [@studiotstella]. (2019, November 16). My poster for “The Maltese Falcon” - 1941 by #JohnHuston #DashiellHammett #HumphreyBogart #MaryAstor #PeterLorre #SydneyGreenstreet #Noirvember [Image attached] [Tweet]. Twitter.
    • Parenthetical citation: (APA Databases, 2019; Gates, 2019; Simons, 2015; Stella, 2019)
    • Narrative citation: APA Databases (2019), Gates (2019), Simons (2015), and Stella (2019)
  • Twitter moment

    A Twitter moment is a curated set of stories from Twitter.

    APA Style [@APA_Style]. (2019, December 17). What’s new in the #7thEdition of #APAStyle [Moment]. Twitter. Retrieved January 19, 2020, from DeGeneres, E. [@TheEllenShow]. (2018, March 8). Incredible women on The Ellen Show [Moment]. Twitter. Retrieved January 17, 2020, from
    • Parenthetical citation: (APA Style, 2019; DeGeneres, 2018)
    • Narrative citation: APA Style (2019) and DeGeneres (2018)
  • Twitter profile

    Twitter profiles begin on the “Tweets” tab by default. If you want to cite one of the other tabs (e.g., “Tweets & Replies,” “Media,” “Likes”), use the name of that tab rather than “Tweets” in the title element of the reference.

    APA Style [@APA_Style]. (n.d.). Tweets [Twitter profile]. Twitter. Retrieved January 15, 2020, from Jordan, M. B. [@michaelb4jordan]. (n.d.). Tweets & replies [Twitter profile]. Twitter. Retrieved January 9, 2020, from
    • Parenthetical citation: (APA Style, n.d.; Jordan, n.d.)
    • Narrative citation: APA Style (n.d.) and Jordan (n.d.)


  • Webpage on a Website References

    • Webpage on a news website

      Use this format for articles from news websites. Common examples are BBC News, Bloomberg, CNN, HuffPost, MSNBC, Reuters, Salon, and Vox. These sites do not have associated daily or weekly newspapers.

      Bologna, C. (2019, October 31). Why some people with anxiety love watching horror movies. HuffPost. Woodyatt, A. (2019, September 10). Daytime naps once or twice a week may be linked to a healthy heart, researchers say. CNN.
      • Parenthetical citation: (Bologna, 2019; Woodyatt, 2019)
      • Narrative citation: Bologna (2019) and Woodyatt (2019)
    • Webpage on a website with a government agency group author

      For a page on a government website without individual authors, use the specific agency responsible for the webpage as the author.

      National Institute of Mental Health. (2018, July). Anxiety disorders. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, National Institutes of Health.
      • Parenthetical citation: (National Institute of Mental Health, 2018)
      • Narrative citation: National Institute of Mental Health (2018)
    • Webpage on a website with an organizational group author

      For a page from an organization’s website without individual authors, use the name of the organization as the author.

      World Health Organization. (2018, May 24). The top 10 causes of death.
      • Parenthetical citation: (World Health Organization, 2018)
      • Narrative citation: World Health Organization (2018)
    • Webpage on a website with an individual author

      When individual author(s) are credited on the webpage, list them as the author in the reference.

      Giovanetti, F. (2019, November 16). Why we are so obsessed with personality types. Medium.
      • Parenthetical citation: (Giovanetti, 2019)
      • Narrative citation: Giovanetti (2019)
    • Webpage on a website with a retrieval date

      When contents of a page are designed to change over time but are not archived, include a retrieval date in the reference.

      U.S. Census Bureau. (n.d.). U.S. and world population clock. U.S. Department of Commerce. Retrieved January 9, 2020, from
      • Parenthetical citation: (U.S. Census Bureau, n.d.)
      • Narrative citation: U.S. Census Bureau (n.d.)
  • Open Educational Resource References

    Create a reference to an OER only when the materials are available for download directly (i.e., the materials are on the page and/or can be downloaded as PDFs or other files). If you are directed to another website, create a reference to the specific webpage on that website where the materials can be retrieved. Use this format for material in any OER repository, such as OER Commons, OASIS, or MERLOT.

    Fagan, J. (2019, March 25). Nursing clinical brain. OER Commons. Retrieved January 7, 2020, from
    • Parenthetical citation: (Fagan, 2019)
    • Narrative citation: Fagan (2019)
  • Whole Website References

    Do not create references or in-text citations for whole websites.

    To mention a website in general, and not any particular information on that site, provide the name of the website in the text and include the URL in parentheses. For example, you might mention that you used a website to create a survey.

    We created our survey using Qualtrics (

    If you are writing online, you can link the name of the site directly so that the link has descriptive text.

    We created our survey using Qualtrics.

    To cite particular information on a website, determine the reference type (e.g., report, webpage) and then follow the appropriate format.s

3.9 DOIs and URLs

  • A DOI is a unique alphanumeric string that identifies content and provides a persistent link to its location on the internet. DOIs can be found in database records and the reference lists of published works.
  • A URL specifies the location of digital information on the internet and can be found in the address bar of your internet browser. URLs in references should link directly to the cited work when possible.

3.91 When to include DOI and URL

  • Include a DOI for all works that have a DOI, regardless of whether you used the online version or the print version.
  • If a print work does not have a DOI, do not include any DOI or URL in the reference.s
  • If an online work has both a DOI and a URL, include only the DOI.

3.92 Format of DOIs and URLs

  • Present both DOIs and URLs as hyperlinks (i.e., beginning with “http:” or “https:”).
  • Because a hyperlink leads readers directly to the content, it is not necessary to include the words “Retrieved from” or “Accessed from” before a DOI or URL.
  • It is acceptable to use either the default display settings for hyperlinks in your word-processing program (e.g., usually blue font, underlined) or plain text that is not underlined.
  • Leave links live if the work is to be published or read online.